Ankle Brachial Pressure Index. A hand-held Doppler ultrasound test used to determine the presence and degree of peripheral arterial disease in patients with leg ulcers.
Adhesion (Cell adhesion)
Cell to cell attachment and cell to matrix attachment are often referred to as cell adhesion. Cells bind to matrix molecules (or cell surface molecules) via adhesion sites on the cell surface, e.g. integrins. The binding strength is low for these adhesion sites and the cell adhesion strength relies on simultaneous binding of multiple integrins to multiple ligands in the adjacent matrix, sometimes referred to as the “Velcro principle”.
See Extracellular matrix.
A dressing made from seaweed which can be composed of the steams – G alginate (galuronic) and from the leaves M alginate (mannuronic acid), with the proportions of these determining the gel forming properties of the final fibre. G is more gel forming than M. Best used in moderate to highly exuding wounds. If the wound bed is too dry the alginate will not gel and will adhere to the wound bed. Some alginates have haemostatic qualities.
Extracellular proteins and the major organic component in the enamel matrix of developing teeth. They are therefore also called enamel matrix proteins. Amelogenin self-assembles, under physiological conditions, to large protein aggregates to which cells adhere. See also Enamel matrix protein.
Bacteria that multiply in the absence of free oxygen.
Medical treatment to reduce feeling of pain, heat, cold, touch etc
The proliferation of new blood vessels. Angiogenesis within a wound occurs during the proliferative phase of healing. The extracellular matrix provides the scaffolding into which new capillaries will grow.
Agent that acts against bacteria.
Agent tending to prevent or destroy life, used to treat infection.
Property of micro-organism to resist inactivation by antibiotics.
Agent that acts against micro-organisms (includes bacteria, fungi, virus, and protozoa). Antimicrobial is a "broader" term than antibacterial.
Chemical agents that can be used on skin or living tissue to inhibit or eliminate micro-organisms. Antiseptics can be dilute disinfectants; they are not selective and therefore can be toxic to the host tissue, particularly at higher concentrations. Antiseptics have the advantage of rarely selecting for resistant microbial strains, and being topical, do not rely on the bloodstream for access to the wound; this is particularly important for wounds with poor blood circulation.
Keeping an object free from contamination by micro-organisms. Antisepsis is the use of a substance, which prevents or inhibits the growth of micro-organisms without necessary destroying them.
Programmed cell death. Apoptosis is an active self-destructive process, which is part of the normal process of growth control. Apoptosis is fundamental to the maintenance of homeostasis, tissue repair and regeneration.
The term used for the natural, spontaneous process of devitalized tissue being separated from viable tissue. Together with proteolytic enzymes, macrophage activity is thought to be responsible for autolysis. Disintegration or liquification of tissue or cells by the body's own mechanisms (leukocytes or enzymes); as in autolytic Debridement.